Yadavas: Origin and History, As Warrior Caste, Seuna (Yadava) Rulers, Trikuta (Abhir) Dynasty, Kalachuri Dynasty

The Yadavas , also known as Yaduvanshi or Ahir , are a caste/community found in India and Nepal , descended from the ancient king Yadu of the Chandravanshi Kshatriya dynasty . The Yadavas are one of the five Indo-Aryan Kshatriya clans mentioned in the Vedas as ” Panchjanya “. According to the Rigveda , the Aryans were primarily agriculturists and herders who counted their wealth in terms of cows. They behave like Five barbarian / Ahir tribe who attacked China . Yadu and Turvasu have also been called barbarians in Rigveda . The Yadavas generally follow the Vaishnava tradition, and share the same religious beliefs. Lord Krishna was a Yadava, and the story of the Yadavas is given in the Mahabharata . Earlier the Yadavas and Krishnas lived in the region of Mathura , and were cowherds / cowherds . Krishna later established a kingdom at Dwarka in western India. established. The Yadavas described in the Mahabharata were cattle herders ( Abhirs ) Kshatriyas . The Yadavas had a glorious past in Indian history, especially in the context of the Vedic period, and were known for their bravery and diplomatic wisdom . The Bhagavata religion was primarily considered to be the religion of the Abhiras and Krishna himself was known as an Abhira . In medieval literature, Krishna is referred to as Aabhir (Ahir).It is called It should be remembered that the Abhir caste is the progenitor of the Yadav dynasty and as a caste has a close affinity to Sanskrit as a language .


The Yadavas of the Mahabharata period were known as followers of the Vaishnava sect , with Sri Krishna as their leader: they were all cowherds by profession. and Gopa but at the same time he assumed the position of a Kshatriya by participating in the Battle of Kurukshetra . Present day Ahirs are also followers of Vaishnavism .

Tribes(s)Afri/ Atri / Abhri / Abhir/ Khatri
People Known asAfar / Ayar / Iyer / Aher / Aheer / Ahir / Berber
CharacterVedic lunar Kshatriyas
inhabited stateIndia and Nepal
subdivisionNandvanshi , Gwalvanshi and Yaduvanshi

The association of the Yadavas with the Abhiras in the epics and Puranas is attested to by the evidence that the Yadava kingdom was mostly inhabited by Ahirs .

In the Mahabharata , Ahir , Gop , Gopal and Yadav are all synonymous . Abhir Kshatriyas were given the noun of Gop and Gopal because of the protection and rearing of cows . In the period (from 500 BC to 1 BC) when Pali language was prevalent in India, the word Gopal was modified and the word ‘Gopal’ was changed to ‘Goal’ and further modified to form ‘Gwal’. given. An unknown poet has aptly described it in a verse that Yadavs are called ‘Gop’ because of cow rearing and after being called ‘Gopal’, they become ‘ Gwal ‘ . are called

Yaduvanshi Kshatriyas are basically Ahirs . The Yadavas are classified under the Kshatriya varna in Hinduism , and many royal dynasties in medieval India were descended from the Yadus . They held power in India and Nepal until the 13–14th century, before the arrival of Muslim invaders.

Origin and history

The Yadavas are the descendants of a great king Yadu . Who is considered the ancestor of Lord Krishna . Yadu’s father Yayati was a Kshatriya and his mother Devayani was the daughter of the Brahmin sage Shukracharya . The Yadavas are Kshatriya warriors and a branch of the lunar lineage that descends from Yayati ‘s eldest son Yadu , and is parallel to the branch (which includes the Kauravas ) that descends from Yayati ‘s youngest son Puru . YayatiIn the beginning, Yadav had told his son Yadu that your people would remain anarchic, because of this Yadav used to do cattle rearing. And was famous by the name Gopa . According to Vishnu Purana, Bhagavata Purana and Garuda Purana, Yadu had four sons – Sahastrajit, Kroshta, Nala and Ripu. Shatjit was born from Sahastrajit. Shatjit had three sons Mahahaya, Venuhaya and Haihaya.

The traditional profession of Yadavs ( Ahirs ) is cow rearing and agriculture . His role with the sacred cows gave him special status. The Ahirs are descendants of Lord Krishna and were a powerful caste of East or Central Asia.


Ramprasad Chanda, points to the fact that Indra is said to have brought Turvasu and Yadu from over the ocean , and that Yadu and Turvasu were called barbarians or slaves. After analyzing the ancient legends and traditions he came to the conclusion that the Yadavas originally settled in the Kathiawar peninsula and later spread to Mathura .

First, according to the Rig Veda , that they were Arajina – without kingship or non-kingdom, and second that Indra brought them from across the ocean and made them worthy of consecration. AD Pusalkar observes that the Yadavas were called Asuras in the epics and Puranas, which may be due to mixing with non-Aryans and lax adherence to Aryanism. It is important to note that even in the Mahabharata, Krishna is referred to as Sanghamukha. Biman Bihari Majumdar points out that at one place in the Mahabharata the Yadavas are called Vratyas and at another place Krishna speaks of eighteen thousand Vrats in his gotra.

Yadav Kshatriyas colonized Israel as they were also called Hebrew , of course, Hebrew is a corrupt form of the word Abhir as they were pastoralists and shepherds as famous people in the history of India.

Yadav and Ahir as an ethnic category

The Yadav / Ahir caste is found in various parts of India , Burma , Pakistan Nepal and Sri Lanka and is known as Yadav ( Ahir ) in Punjab , Haryana , Himachal Pradesh , Delhi , Uttar Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh , Gujarat and Rajasthan ; Gola and Sadgopa, or Gowda, in Bengal and Orissa ; Gawli in Maharashtra ; Andhra Pradesh and KarnatakaYadav and Kuruba in India, Idayan and Konar in Tamil Nadu . There are also several sub-regional names such as Thetvar and Rawat in Madhya Pradesh , Mahakul (great family) in Bihar .


These homogeneous castes have two things in common. Firstly, they are descendants of the Yadu dynasty (Yadavas) , whose Lord was Krishna . Secondly, many castes in this category have occupations related to cattle.

Apart from this mythological origin of the Yadavas, there is semi-historical and historical evidence to compare the Ahirs with the Yadavas. It is argued that the word Ahir comes from Abhir or Abhir , who were once found in different parts of India , and who held political power in many places. The Abhiras are clubbed with the Ahirs , the Gopas and the cowherds , and all of them are considered Yadavas. Hemachandra in the Daishraya-kavya describes the Chudasama prince Graharipu as ruling at Vanthali near Junagadh .Abhira and as a Yadava. Furthermore, Chudasama is still called Ahir Rana in his Bardic traditions as well as popular stories. Then there are many remains of Khandesh (the historical stronghold of the Abhiras) popularly believed to be of Gawli Raj , which is archaeologically related to the Yadavas of Devagiri . Therefore, it is concluded that the Yadavas of Devagiri were actually Abhiras . The Portuguese traveler account refers to the Vijayanagara emperors as Kannada Golas (Abhiras). First historically traceable Yadava dynasty TrikutaThere are those who were grateful .

In addition, there are a substantial number of clans within the Ahirs that trace their lineage to the Yadus and Lord Krishna , some of whom find mention in the Mahabharata as Yadava clans. James Tod demonstrated that the Ahirs were included in the list of 36 royal castes of Rajasthan .

According to the Padma Purana, Vishnu informed the Abhiras and said, “O Abhiras, in my eighth incarnation, I will be born in your family of Gopas ( Abhirs ) . “

Mythological characters in Hinduism

Goddess Gayatri

Gayatri is an expression of the popular Gayatri Mantra, a hymn from Vedic texts. She is also known as Savitri and Vedmata (Mother of the Vedas).

According to the Puranas, Gayatri was an Ahir girl who helped Brahma in the Yajna performed at Pushkar .

Goddess Durga

Durga is a major goddess in Hinduism. She is worshiped as a major aspect of the Mother Goddess and is one of the most popular and widely revered among Indian deities.

According to historian Ramprasad Chanda, Durga evolved over time in the Indian subcontinent. A primitive form of Durga, according to Chanda, was the result of “the syncretism of a mountain-goddess worshiped by the inhabitants of the Himalayas and the Vindhyas ” with a deity of the Abhiras as a war-goddess. In the Virat Parva Stuti and the Vishnu Granth, the goddess is referred to as Mahamaya or Yoganidra of Vishnu . This is his Abhir or Gop origin point to. Durga then transforms into Kali as the embodiment of all-destructive time, while her aspects emerge as primordial energy (Adya Shakti) and integrate into the concept of samsara (the cycle of rebirths) and this idea forms the foundation of Vedic religion. was built on. Mythology and Philosophy.

Goddess Radha

Radha also called Radhika, a Hindu goddess and she was the daughter of Vrishabhanu , a Yadava ( Ahir ) ruler of Barsana.

Ila and Urvashi

The 21st Richa of the 41st Sukta of the 5th Mandala of the Rig Veda describes it as follows : Urvaśī , the daughter of Prabhutha, was also known as Bṛhadivā. Meaning: Ila and Urvashi , the nourishers of the herd of cows , listen to our praises combined with the roar of the rivers. May the most radiant Urvashi be praised by our praises and accept our offerings by perfectly covering our sacrificial rituals in which Ila and Urvashi are pronounced as Abhi ( feminine of Abhir in Sanskrit). The translation of this word Abhi by Dr. Ganga Sahay Sharma and Rigveda SamhitaHas described the cow group as the nurturer.

As a warrior caste

The Ahirs are a fighting race from a historical background. They have long been recruited in the army The British government then raised four companies of Ahirs, two of which were in the 95th Russell Infantry. ​​The valor and sacrifice of the Ahir soldiers at the Rejangla Front by the Ahir Company of the 13 Kumaon Regiment during the Indo-China War of 1962 is still admired in India. And in memory of his bravery, the battle site memorial was named “Ahir Dham”.


Yadavs of Uttar Pradesh (Yadav belt)

The Yadavs are the most influential land-owning caste in UP . According to the Hukum Singh Committee set up by the UP government in 2001, the then population of Yadavs was estimated at 14.7 million, and their share in the OBC population was 19.4 percent, although their share in government jobs was 33 percent. While the Yadavs are spread all over UP, their connection is much stronger in the Doab region, also known as Braj Bhoomi , especially famous for Mathura – Agra .

The Yaduvanshi Ahirs of UP traditionally see themselves as a local warrior caste and continue to promote that image of themselves.

As Lucia Michelutti’s article points out, the Yadavas of Uttar Pradesh claim to be superior to all other castes, not only because they are descendants of Lord Krishna , but also because they are natural republicans.

Abisar of Jammu and Kashmir

Abhisar (convergence). Abhir dynasty was the ruler in Kashmir . Whose kingdom was situated in the mountainous regions. According to Dr. Stein, the kingdom of Abhisar was established in the hills between the Jhelum and Chenab rivers. The present Rajouri (Rajpuri) was also included in this. The ancient Abhisar state was located in Poonch, Rajouri and Nowshera of Jammu and Kashmir .


Khandesh has also been called Ahirdesh or Abhirdesh in “Markandeya Purana” and Jain literature. The evidence of Ahir’s rule over this region exists not only in epigraphs and inscriptions, but also in local oral traditions.

Seuna (Yadav) rulers

The remains obtained from Khandesh, a strong stronghold of the Yaduvanshi Ahirs, are believed to be related to the famous ‘Gavli Raj’ and are archaeologically linked to the Yadavas of Devagiri. For this reason, some historians are of the opinion that ‘Yadavs of Devgiri’ were also Abhirs (Ahirs). In the period of Yadav rule, there is also mention of small dependent kings, most of whom are described under the common name Abhir or Ahir, and the population of this community exists in abundance in Khandesh till date.

The Seuna Gawli Yadav dynasty claimed itself to be descended from the Yaduvanshi or Chandravanshi community of North India. The Seunas were originally from Mathura in Uttar Pradesh and later settled in Dwarka. He is also called “Krishnakulotpanna (born in the lineage of Lord Krishna)”, “Yadukula Vansh Tilak” and “Dwarvatipurvaradhishvara (Owner of Dwarka)”. Many current researchers, such as Dr. Kolarkar, also believe that the Yadavas came from North India. The following Seuna Yadav kings ruled Devagiri

  • Dridpraha
  • Seun Chandra I
  • Dhidyappa I
  • Bhillam I
  • Rajgi
  • wedugi first
  • Dhadiyappa II
  • Bhillam II (Sak 922)
  • Veshuggi I
  • Bhillam III (Sak 948)
  • Vedugi II
  • Seuna Chandra II (Sak 991)
  • Paramdev
  • Singhan
  • Malugi
  • Amargangey
  • Amarmalgi
  • Bhillam Pancham
  • Singhan II
  • Ram Chandra

Trikuta (Abhir) dynasty

It is generally believed that the Trikuta Abhir dynasty were Haihayavanshi Abhirs who ruled the Kalchuri and Chedi Samvats and hence they are also called Abhir-Trikuta in history. Idardatta, Daharsen and Vygrasen were the famous kings of this dynasty. The Trikutas were known for their Vaishnava sect, the Yadavas of the Haihaya branch . Daharsen also performed the Ashwamedha Yagya . Ishvarasena in 249 ADThe Abhira era started by K. continued with them and was called Abhira-Trikuta era This era was later continued by Kalachuri dynasty , it was called Kalachuri era and later Kalachuri – Chedi era . After the rule of five Trikuta kings, they migrated to the Central Provinces and assumed the names Haihayas ( Chedis ) and Kalachuris . Historians call this whole era as Abhira-Trikuta – Kalchuri – Chedi era .


Kalachuri dynasty

The name ‘ Kalchuri dynasty ‘ was applied to two kingdoms after the 10th-12th century dynasties, one which ruled central India and Rajasthan and was called Chedi or Haihay (Northern branch of Kalachuri). And the other southern Kalachuris who ruled the Karnataka part, the Kalachuris originated from the Abhira dynasty .

The Southern Kalachuris (1130–1184) ruled parts of present-day northern Karnataka and Maharashtra in the south. In the south between 1156 and 1181, the following prominent kings of this dynasty were-

  • Krishna
  • Bijjala
  • Someshwar
  • Sangma

After 1181 AD, the Chalukyas captured this region. From the religious point of view, the Kalachuris were mainly followers of the Pashupat sect of Hindus.

Ay (Ayar) dynasty

The Ay (Ayar) was an Indian Yadava dynasty that controlled the southwestern tip of the peninsula from early historic times to the medieval period. The clan traditionally ruled the port of Vizhinjam, the fertile region of Nanjinad and the southern parts of the spice-producing Western Ghats mountains. The dynasty was also known as Kupka in medieval times.

It is speculated that the name Ay is derived from the early Tamil word “ay” meaning cowherd. Cowherds were known as Aiyars in Tamil, even as they were known as Ahirs and Abhirs in North India. Tradition says that the Ahirs in the Pandya country came to Tamilakam with the ancestors of the Pandyas . The Potia mountain region and its capital were known as Ay-Kudi. Nachinarkiniyar, in his commentary on the opening sutra of the Tolkappiyam, describes a tradition relating to the migration of the Yadava caste with a sage Agastya, who repairs Dvaraka and takes Krishna with him .Takes 18 kings of the line and moves to the south. , There, he cleared the jungles and created kingdoms to accommodate all the people he brought with him.

The Ay kings continued to cherish their association with the Yadu-kula and Krishna in later times as well , as seen in their copper plate grants and inscriptions .

According to Alf Hiltebeitel, Konar is a regional name for the Yadav caste, to which Krishna belongs. Several Vaishnava texts associate Krishna with the Iyer caste, or Konar, notably the Thiruppavai, composed by Devi Andal herself, specifically referring to Krishna as “Iyer Kulathu Mani Vilakke”. The caste name is interchangeable with the names Konar and Kovalar which are derived from the Tamil word kon, which can mean “king” and ” cowboy “.


The medieval Ay dynasty claimed that they were of Yadava or Vrishni descent and this claim was carried forward by the rulers of Venad and Travancore. Sri Padmanabha was the patron deity of the medieval Ay family in Trivandrum.

Chudasama (Abhir) dynasty

” Chudasama Dynasty ” was originally an Abhir dynasty of Sindh province . They had considerable influence around Junagadh from AD 875 onwards , when they consolidated themselves at Vanathali (ancient Vamanasthali) near Girnar under their own-king Ra Chuda.

Current status

The Yadav (Ahir) community is the single largest community in India . They are not confined to any particular region but reside in almost all parts of the country. However, they have dominance in Haryana , Uttar Pradesh and Bihar . There are also large numbers of Yadavs (Ahirs) in other states such as Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh , Chhattisgarh , Orissa , Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat , Andhra Pradesh , Tamil Nadu and Karnataka .

The Yadav community is distributed in Bihar , Chhattisgarh , Delhi , Haryana , Jharkhand , Karnataka , Madhya Pradesh , Odisha , Rajasthan , Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal . States are given representation in government jobs and educational institutions as Other Backward Classes (OBCs) . Yadavs are in General category in Punjab.

Relations between the Rajputs

Some Rajputs claim that they are descendants of the ancient king Yadu and associate themselves with the Yadavas or Yaduvansh , (actually the Rajput group did not exist during the ancient king Yadu ‘s lifetime nor arose until several centuries later. ), how could he lay the foundation of any other community other than his descendants, the Yadavas? However, it is felt that his claim of being a Yaduvanshi can be justified, but his descent from Yadu cannot be confirmed. The word Rajput for the ruler is not used in the time of Ramayana and Mahabharata in history books or Puranas till 600 AD and Rajput Jain texts after 600 AD to 1200 ADLike not found in books, even Rajput is not found in Prithviraj Raso book which was written in 13th or 14th century AD. According to some historians, the Rajputs are a mixed group. Some Rajputs are descendants of foreign invaders such as the Shakas , Kushans and Hunas . and others belong to Shudras and Adivasis . The term raja-putra occurs in some Vedic texts. The present day Rajput groups claim that Rajput means prince in Vedic texts . This claim is incorrect, from Sanskrit.Raja-putra meaning king ‘s son , king -son or king ‘s son can be a person of any caste or tribe and varna , for example Meghnad is described as Rajputra in Ramayana .

According to eminent historian Mr. Bhattacharya, Yaduvanshi Rajputs are descended from Yaduvanshi Ahirs .

Some historians believe that the Yaduvanshi Rajputs are Banjaras or Muslims who started claiming to be Yaduvanshi to enhance their social status.

Historian A. According to V. Narasimha Murthy, the claim of ” Yaduvansh ” was very popular in medieval India. Many dynasties were eager to associate themselves with the Yaduvansh .


  1.  Shashi, Shyam Singh (1994). Encyclopaedia of Indian Tribes: The tribal world in transition. Anmol Publications, 1994. पृ॰ 76. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 9788170418368The Yadavas of the Mahabharata period were known to be the followers of Vaisnavism, of which Krsna was the leader: they were gopas (cowherd) by profession, but at the same time they held the status of the Ksatriyas, participating in the battle of Kurukshetra. The present Ahirs are also followers of Vaisnavism.
  2.  Publication, Mocktime. GIST OF NCERT History Classwise Class 6-12 (8 Books in 1): for UPSC IAS General Studies Paper 1 (अंग्रेज़ी में). by Mocktime Publication. The Rig Vedic Aryans were pastoral people and their main occupation was cattle rearing. Their wealth was estimated in terms of their cattle. When they permanently settled in North India they began to practice agriculture.
  3. Saxena, RK (2021-01-19). General Knowledge 2020-Competitive Exam Book 2021 (in English). Prabhat Publication. ISBN 978-93-5322-212-3Aryans were primarily agricultural and pastoral people who reckoned their wealth in terms of cows. • Alcoholic drinks, Sura and Soma were also consumed.
  4.  Morris, Charles (1892). The Aryan Race: Its Origins and Its Achievements (अंग्रेज़ी में). S.C. Griggs. The Vedic society in ancient lndia consisted two groups, the Aryans, a vigorous pastoral people composing and reciting the Vedic Samhitas and the vanquished Dasyus, members of a highly cultured but decaying civilization.
  5. Chattopadhyaya, Sudhakar (1978). Reflections on the Tantras (in English). Motilal Banarsidas Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0691-7In the Rgueda, x.62.10, the Yadus and Turvasas are called dāsas or barbarians. From these evidences R.P. Chanda infers that the Yadus were of homo-Alpinus origin, settled originally in Western Asia, whence they came to India settled in surastra or kathiawad Peninsula and then spread to Mathura.
  6. Hilteitel, Alf (2001-10-30). Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader’s Guide to the Education of the Dharma King (in English). University of Chicago Press. I.S.B.N. 978-0-226-34054-8The Yadavas are Ksatriya warriors and a branch of the lunar dynasty that descends from Yayati’s oldest son Yadu, and parallels the branch (which includes the Kurus) that descends from Yayati’s youngest son Puru.
  7. Viyogi, Naval (2002). Nagas, the Ancient Rulers of India: Their Origin and History (in English). Originals. ISBN 978-81-7536-287-1.
  8. Brahmachary, KC (2004). We and Our Administration (in English). Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-916-4.
  9. Dalal, Roshen (2014-04-18). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide (in English). To install Penguin UK. ISBN 978-81-8475-277-9Yadava A descendant of YADU in Hindu mythology. The god KRISHNA was a Yadava, and the story of the Yadavas is given in the MAHABHARATA. At first the Yadavas and Krishna lived in the region of MATHURA and were pastoral cowherds.
  10.  Bahadur), Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai (1974). Man in India (अंग्रेज़ी में). A. K. Bose. The Yādavas, mentioned in the Mahabharata, were pastoral kshatriyas among whom Krishna was brought up. The Gopas, whom Krishna had offered to Duryodhana to fight in his support when he himself joined Arjuna’s side, were no other than the Yadavas themselves, who were also the Abhiras.
  11. Dange, Sindhu S. (1984). The Bhāgavata Purāṇa: Mytho-social Study (in English). Ajanta Publications. ISBN 978-0-8364-1132-4the Bhāgavata religion was considered primarily as the religion of the Ābhīras and Krşņa himself came to be known as an Ābhira. In the mediaeval literature, Krsna is called an Ābbira.
  12. Yadava, SDS (2006). Followers of Krishna: Yadavas of India (in English). To install Lancer Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7062-216-1It must be remembered that the Abhiras race are the ancestors of the Yadava clan and there is a close association of Sanskrit as a language to the Abhiras as a race.
  13.  Behere, Narayan Keshav (1946). The Background of Maratha Renaissance in the 17th Century: Historical Survey of the Social, Religious and Political Movements of the Marathas (अंग्रेज़ी में). Bangalore Press. The Gopas and the Abhiras were the predecessors of the Yadavas, and both of them claimed kinship with Shrikrishna.
  14.  Shashi, Shyam Singh (1994). Encyclopaedia of Indian Tribes: The tribal world in transition. Anmol Publications, 1994. पृ॰ 76. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 9788170418368The Yadavas of the Mahabharata period were known to be the followers of Vaisnavism, of which Krsna was the leader: they were gopas (cowherd) by profession, but at the same time they held the status of the Ksatriyas, participating in the battle of Kurukshetra. The present Ahirs are also followers of Vaisnavism.
  15.  Vaidya, Chintaman Vinayak (2001). Epic India, Or, India as Described in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Asian Educational Services, 2001. पृ॰ 423. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 9788120615649The fact that the Yadavas were pastoral in their habits is distinctly proved by the fact that Krishna’s sister Subhadra when she was taken away by Arjuna is described as having put on the dress of a Gopi or female cowherd. It is impossible to explain this fact unless we believe that the whole tribe was accustomed to use this dress. The freedom with which she and other Yadava women are described as moving on the Raivataka hill in the festivities on that occasion also shows that their social relations were freer and more unhampered than among the other Kshatriyas. Krishna again when he went over to Arjuna’s side is said in the Mahabharata to have given in balance for that act an army of Gopas to Duryodhana. The Gopas could have been no other than the Yadavas themselves.
  16.  Bahadur), Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai (1974). Man in India (अंग्रेज़ी में). A. K. Bose. In the Epics and the Puranas the association of the Yādavas with the Abhiras was attested by the evidence that the Yådava kingdom was“ mostly inhabited by the Abhiras”.
  17. Chopra, Pran Nath (1982). Religions and Communities of India (in English). Vision Books. ISBN 978-0-391-02748-0The Mahabharata and other authoritative works use the three terms-Gopa, Yadava and Ahir synonymously.
  18.  Rao, M. S. A. (1987). Social Movements and Social Transformation: A Study of Two Backward Classes Movements in India (अंग्रेज़ी में). Manohar. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-8364-2133-0In the Mahabharata , Abhir, Gopa, Gopal and Yadavas are all synonyms.
  19. Kumar, Ravinder (1984). Philosophical Theory and Social Reality (in English). Allied. ISBN 978-0-8364-1171-3.
  20.  Soni, Lok Nath (2000). The Cattle and the Stick: An Ethnographic Profile of the Raut of Chhattisgarh (अंग्रेज़ी में). Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-81-85579-57-3Abhira Kshatriyas were named Gope when they protected the cows, and Gopal when they tended and grazed the cows. 23 In the period (from 500 B.C. to 1 B.C.) when the Pali language was prevalent in India, the word ‘Gopal was modified to ‘Goal’ and by further modification it took the form of Gwal. This has been aptly described by an unknown poet 24 in a verse that” due to rearing cattle, the Yadav are called ‘ Gope’, and after being called’ Gopal’, they are called’ Gwal’ (Singh, 1945).
  21.  Soni, Lok Nath (2000). The Cattle and the Stick: An Ethnographic Profile of the Raut of Chhattisgarh (अंग्रेज़ी में). Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-81-85579-57-3the Yadubansi Kshatriyas were originally Ahirs.
  22. Sharma, Usha (2005-01-01). Marriage in Indian Society: From Tradition to Modernity (in English). Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-998-0.
  23. Hilteitel, Alf (2001-10-30). Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader’s Guide to the Education of the Dharma King (in English). University of Chicago Press. I.S.B.N. 978-0-226-34054-8The Yadavas are Ksatriya warriors and a branch of the lunar dynasty that descends from Yayati’s oldest son Yadu, and parallels the branch (which includes the Kurus) that descends from Yayati’s youngest son Puru.
  24. Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World (in English). Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-374-0.
  25. Mittal, JP (2006). History Of Ancient India (a New Version) : From 7300 Bb To 4250 Bc, (in English). Atlantic Publishers & Dist. I.S.B.N. 978-81-269-0615-4.
  26. ↑ Caturasena (Acharya) (1964). Bhāratīya saṃskr̥ti as itihāsa . Rastogi.
  27. Rao, MSA (1979). Social movements and social transformation: a study of two backward classes movements in India . Macmillan. p. 124. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014 . Retrieved 1 July 2020 .
  28. ↑ Sethna, Kaikhushru Dhunjibhoy (1989). Ancient India in a New Light (in English). Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-85179-12-4.
  29. Roy, Janmajit (2002). Theory of Avatara and Divinity of Chaitanya (in English). Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 978-81-269-0169-2.
  30.  Vyāsaśishya, Kuṃvaralāla (1990). The Indian Asuras Colonised Europe (अंग्रेज़ी में). Itihas Vidya Prakashana. David was the famous hero of Yadavas mentioned in the Purāņas as Devāvridha and his son was Babhru. Other personages could also be identified , but this specimen identification is ample proof that Yadava Kshatriyas colonized Israel as they were also called Hebrew, definitely the world Hebrew is corrupt from of the word Abhira as they were pastoral and shepherd as people famous in the Indian history.
  31.  Rao, M. S. A. (1987). Social movements and social transformation : a study of two backward classes movements in India. Internet Archive. New Delhi : Manohar.
  32. Enthoven, Reginald Edward (1990). The Tribes and Castes of Bombay (in English). Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0630-2.
  33. Enthoven, Reginald Edward (1990). The Tribes and Castes of Bombay (in English). Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0630-2.
  34. Enthoven, Reginald Edward (1990). The Tribes and Castes of Bombay (in English). Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0630-2.
  35.  Population Geography: A Journal of the Association of Population Geographers of India (अंग्रेज़ी में). The Association. 1988.
  36. Bhattacharya, Sunil Kumar (1996). Krishna-cult in Indian Art (in English). MD Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-7533-001-6.
  37. ↑ Padmapurāṇam: Sr̥ṣtikhaṇḍātmakaḥ prathamo bhāgaḥ . Caukhambā Saṃskr̥ta Sīrīja Āphisa. 2007 . 978-81-7080-233-4.
  38. Nambiar, K. Damodaran (1979). Nārada Purāṇa, a Critical Study (in English). All-India Kashiraj Trust.
  39. Arya, Sharda (1988). Religion and Philosophy of the Padma-purāṇa (in English). Nag Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7081-190-9.
  40. Wadia, Sophia (1969). The Aryan Path (in English). Theosophy Company (India), Limited.
  41. Aiyar, Indira S. (1997). Durga As Mahisasuramardini (in English). Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-212-0510-8.
  42.  McDaniel, June (2004-08-05). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular Goddess Worship in West Bengal (अंग्रेज़ी में). Oxford University Press. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-19-534713-5.
  43. Varma, Pavan K. (2009-07-01). The Book of Krishna (in English). Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-306763-4.
  44. Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Káthiáwar (in English). Government Central Press. 1884. Radha or Radhika who was the daughter of Vrashabhánu, an Áhir chief of Varsána, a village near Gokul.
  45. Das, RK (1990). Temples of Vrindaban (in English). Sandeep Publication. ISBN 978-81-85067-47-6.
  46. ↑ Sharma, Dr. Gangasahai (2013-07-11). Rigved Hindi Indology . Vishv Books Private Limited. ISBN 9789350652237.
  47.  Pinch, William R. (1996). Peasants and monks in British India. University of California Press. पृ॰ 90. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-520-20061-6, Retrieved 2012-02-22 .
  48.  M. S. A. Rao (1 May 1979). Social movements and social transformation: a study of two backward classes movements in India. Macmillan. अभिगमन तिथि 2011-03-28.
  49.  Guruswamy, Mohan (20 November 2012). “Don’t forget the heroes of Rezang La”The Hindu. अभिगमन तिथि 2014-07-13.
  50.  “‘Nobody believed we had killed so many Chinese at Rezang La. Our commander called me crazy and warned that I could be court-martialled'”The Indian Express. 30 October 2012. अभिगमन तिथि 2014-07-13.
  51. Palshikar, Suhas; Kumar, Sanjay; Lodha, Sanjay (2017-02-03). Electoral Politics in India: The Resurgence of the Bharatiya Janata Party (in English). Taylor & Francis. I.S.B.N. 978-1-351-99691-4.
  52.  Beissinger, Margaret; Tylus, Jane; Wofford, Susanne; Wofford, Susanne Lindgren (1999-03-31). Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: The Poetics of Community (अंग्रेज़ी में). University of California Press. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-520-21038-7The Ahirs of U.P. have traditionally viewed themselves as a local warrior caste and continue to promote that im- age of themselves.
  53. Gupta, Dipankar (2004-11-08). Caste in Question: Identity or Hierarchy? (in English). SAGE Publications India. ISBN 978-81-321-0345-5.
  54. ↑ “Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XVII, Chapter 90, section 1” . www.perseus.tufts.edu . Access date 2021-10-09 .
  55. Enthoven, Reginald Edward (1990). The Tribes and Castes of Bombay (in English). Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0630-2.
  56. Kapoor, Subodh (2002). Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography (in English). Cosmo Publications. ISBN 978-81-7755-298-0.
  57. India), Oriental Institute (Vadodara (1985). Journal of the Oriental Institute ). Oriental Institute.
  58. Enthoven, Reginald Edward (1990). The Tribes and Castes of Bombay (in English). Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0630-2.
  59.  Maharashtra (India) (1976). Maharashtra State Gazetteers: Buldhana (अंग्रेज़ी में). Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State.
  60. Epigraphia Indica (in English). Manager of Publications. 1985.
  61.  192. Chapter 8, “Yadavas Through the Ages” J.N.S.Yadav (1992)
  62.  193.Robin James Moore. Tradition and Politics in South Asia. 1979. Vikas Publishing House.
  63.  195. Marathyancha Itihaas by Dr. SG Kolarkar, p.4, Shri Mangesh Prakashan, Nagpur.
  64. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay . Asiatic Society of Bombay. 1935.
  65. The Age of Imperial Unity . Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 1968.
  66. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay . Asiatic Society of Bombay. 1935.
  67.  Barnett, Lionel D. (1994). Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan (अंग्रेज़ी में). Asian Educational Services. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-81-206-0530-5.
  68.  Vaidya, Chintaman Vinayak (1921). History of Mediæval Hindu India: Circa 600-800 A.D (अंग्रेज़ी में). Oriental Book Supplying Agency. It is clear that the rule previous to that of the Gurjaras was that of the Traikutakas who claimed to be Haihayas by descent and whose capital Trikuta not yet well identified is mentioned even in the Rāmāyaṇa and in Kalidasa’s Raghuvansha.
  69. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization (in English). New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
  70. A Comprehensive History of India: pt. 1. AD 300-985 (in English). Orient Longmans. 1981.
  71. Numismatic Digest . Numismatic Society of Bombay. 1982.
  72. Choubey, MC (2006). Tripuri, History and Culture (in English). Sharada Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-88934-28-7.
  73. The Numismatic Chronicle . Royal Numismatic Society. 1983.
  74. “Kalachuri Dynasty – History – Glorious India” . gloriousindia.com . Retrieved 2021-10-20 .
  75. Siṃhadeba, Jitāmitra Prasāda (2006). Archeology of Orissa: With Special Reference to Nuapada and Kalahandi (in English). RN Bhattacharya. I.S.B.N. 978-81-87661-50-4The origin of Kalachuris is from Abhira clan.
  76.  211.Students’ Britannica India By Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani.
  77.  212.P. 325 Three Mountains and Seven Rivers: Prof. Musashi Tachikawa’s Felicitation Volume edited by Musashi Tachikawa, Shōun Hino, Toshihiro Wada
  78. Subrahmanian, N. (1993). Social and Cultural History of Tamilnad: To AD 1336 (in English). enes.
  79.  Ganesh, K.N. (June 2009). “Historical Geography of Natu in South India with Special Reference to Kerala”. Indian Historical Review36 (1): 3–21. आइ॰एस॰एस॰एन॰ 0376-9836डीओआइ:10.1177/037698360903600102. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored ( help )
  80.  Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 179.
  81.  A Dictionary Of The Tamil And English Languages, Volume 1, Page 131
  82.  Padmaja, T. (2002). Temples of Kr̥ṣṇa in South India: History, Art, and Traditions in Tamilnāḍu (अंग्रेज़ी में). Abhinav Publications. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-81-7017-398-4.
  83. Hiltebeitel, Alf (1988-03-21). The Cult of Draupadi, Volume 1: Mythologies: From Gingee to Kuruksetra (in English). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-34046-3.
  84.  Studies, Faculty of Oriental. Neolithic Cattle-Keepers of South India (अंग्रेज़ी में). CUP Archive.
  85.  Aiya, V. Nagam. The Travancore State Manual. Vol 1. Part 2. Trivandrum: The Travancore Government Press, 1906 [1]
  86.  Ganesh, K.N. (February 1990). “The Process of State Formation in Travancore”. Studies in History6 (1): 15–33. आइ॰एस॰एस॰एन॰ 0257-6430डीओआइ:10.1177/025764309000600102. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored ( help )
  87.  Rajan, K. V. Soundara (1985). Junagadh (अंग्रेज़ी में). Archaeological Survey of India. The Chudasama dynasty, originally of Abhira clan from Sind wielded great influence around Junagadh from the 875 A.D. onwards when they consolidated themselves at Vanthali (ancient Vamanasthali) close to Girnar under their-King Ra Chuda.
  88.  Gazetteer Of Bombay Vol. I. History Of Gujarat ( Gazetteer Of Bombay Vol. I)Doctor Bhagvanlal held that the Chudasamas were originally of the Abhira tribe, as their traditions attest connection with the Abhiras and as the description of Graharipu one of their kings by Hemachandra in his DvydaSraya points to his being of some local tribe and not of any ancient Rajput lineage. Further in their bardic traditions as well as in popular stories the Chudasamas are still commonly called Ahera-ranas. The position of Aberia in Ptolemy (A.D. 150) seems to show that in the second century the Ahirs were settled between Sindh and the Panjab. Similarly it may be suggested that Jadeja is a corruption of Jaudheja which in turn comes from Yaudheya (the change of y to j being very common) who in Kshatrapa Inscriptions appear as close neighbours of the Ahirs. After the fall of the Valabhis (A.D.775) the Yaudheyas seem to have established themselves in Kacch and the Ahirs settled and made conquests in Kathiavada.
  89. Survavanshi, Bhagwansingh (1962). Abhiras their history and culture . Hemachandra in his Dvyasrayakavya mentions Graharipu, as a mighty Abhira-Chudasama king of Saurashtra. The Chudasama kings are described as Abhiras by Merutungacharya.
  90.  Gooptu, Nandini; Gooptu (2001-07-05). The Politics of the Urban Poor in Early Twentieth-Century India (अंग्रेज़ी में). Cambridge University Press. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-521-44366-1.
  91. Yadava, SDS (2006). Followers of Krishna: Yadavas of India (in English). To install Lancer Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7062-216-1.
  92. Rahi, Javaid (2012-01-01). The Gujjars Vol: 01 and 02 Edited by Dr. Javaid Rahi (in English). Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Arts, Culture, Languages, Jammu.
  93.  Experts, Disha. Indian History & Culture Compendium for IAS Prelims General Studies Paper 1 & State PSC Exams 4th Edition (अंग्रेज़ी में). Disha Publications. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-93-90486-68-7According V.A. Smith “Rajput is a mixed race”. • Some Rajputs have descended from the foreign aggressors like Saka, Kushans and Huns. • V.A. Smith states that “Rajputs were born of various races and castes”.
  94.  Satish Chandra (2008). Social Change and Development in Medieval Indian History. Har-Anand Publications. पृ॰ 44. Modern historians are more or less agreed that the Rajputs consisted of miscellaneous groups including shudras and tribals
  95. ↑ Nagar, Shanti Lal (2009). Laṅkāpati Rāvaṇa . Atmaram & Sons. i 978-81-904819-3-9O king, when the prince Meghnad got ready for the yagya, he started living in the water due to penance.
  96. Mourya, Shekhar (2021-12-23). “Do Rajputra Do Tejwant Do Shaktimaan Takravae Lyrics” . BhajanDiary (in English) . Retrieved 2022-12-12 . Two princes , two strong, two powerful clashed, cut arrows with arrows, shot arrows at arrows, Har Har Mahadev, Har Har Mahadev. |quote=#29 in Line feed character ( help )
  97.  commission, Great Britain Indian statutory (1930). Report of the Indian Statutory Commission … (अंग्रेज़ी में). H. M. Stationery Office. Mr. Bhattacharya, a distinguished historian , writes in his book the “Indian Castes and Tribes” : “It seens very probable that the Yadubansi Rajputs are derived from the Yadubansi Ahirs.
  98. ↑ Deogaonkar, Shashishekhar Gopal; Deogaonkar, Shailaja Shashishekhar (1992). The Banjara (in English). Concept Publishing Company. isbn 978-81-7022-433-4The Banjara are divided into five main clans Rathod, Panwar, Chauhan, puri and Jadon.
  99.  Edwardes, Stephen Meredyth; Bombay (Presidency) (1909). The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island … (अंग्रेज़ी में). Printed at the Time Press. the name Bhati or Bhatia being derived from the Sanskrit bhat.
  100.  Iyengar, Venkatesa (1932). The Mysore (अंग्रेज़ी में). Mittal Publications. Banjaras are derived from the Charan or Bhat caste of Rajputana.
  101.  Shail Mayaram (6 May 2011). Kamala Visweswaran (संपा॰). Perspectives on Modern South Asia: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. John Wiley & Sons. पपृ॰ 18–. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-1-4051-0062-5Helena Basu points out that the Jadeja Rajputs of Gujarat who were described as ‘half Muslim‘ employed African Sidi(Muslim) slaves as cooks
  102.  Bombay (Presidency) (1901). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency (अंग्रेज़ी में). Government Central Press. BAÁTIS or Bhattis Rajputs, probably of Turkish origin. Both Bhátias and Jats claim to be Yadavas. But Bhátias are probably Turks and seem to have no claim to the name Yadava.
  103. Gujarat (in English). Popular publication. 2003. ISBN 978-81-7991-106-8The Chudasama are an offshoot of the Samma tribe, probably of Turk origin who entered India during the seventh or eighth century and are found in Kachchh, Junagadh and Jamnagar districts.
  104. Dhere, Ramchandra Chintaman (2011-06-15). Rise of a Folk God: Vitthal of Pandharpur (in English). Oxford University Press. ISB 978-0-19-977764-8The historian A. V. Narasimha Murthy explains (1971: 25): The claim to “Yaduvamsha” was very popular in ancient and medieval India. Many dynasties were eager to associate themselves with the Yadu-vamsha in which was born the great hero Yadu